The Great Eastern Brood
Brood X is neither the easternmost nor the largest of the broods. Even so, Brood X is among the largest (by geographic extent) broods of 17- year cicadas. A disjunct population exists on Long Island (Simon and Lloyd 1982). Populations historically recorded from Kentucky may be off-cycle emergences of Brood XIV (Lloyd and White 1976). Marlatt (1923) recorded Brood X in Missouri; however, current opinion on these records is that they reflect a co-emergence of Broods XIX and X and stragglers from Broods XIX and XXIII that were mistakenly attributed to Brood X over several cicada generations (Marshall 2001). Michigan populations are generally only M. septendecim; however, M. cassini has been recorded in the state (Marshall et al. 1996). In Ohio, populations of Broods VI, X, and XIV are closely associated, and local populations may be switching from one brood schedule to another (see Kritsky 1987, Kritsky 1988, Kritsky et al. 2005).
In the map below, cicada symbols are verified records in our database as of February 2021. Gold symbols are from Simon (1988); smaller symbols are records with a lower degree of certainty, and crosses represent records that are considered spurious. Blue symbols are from Marlatt (1923); smaller symbols are records with a lower degree of certainty, and question marks represent records that are considered spurious. Symbols are in layered in the order Database, Simon, Marlatt, and symbols in the upper layers may obscure symbols in lower layers. This map may not be reproduced without written permission.
Illinois presents a particular challenge for understanding periodical cicada biology, because it contains both 13 and 17 year life cycles, all 7 currently recognized species, and five separate broods, some of which include disjunct populations.
Stannard (1975) published a map of all Illinois periodical cicada broods. Standard’s map of Brood X closely matches the distribution as currently understood, with the exception of a population near Champaign IL, which belongs to Brood XIX.
In the map below, cicada symbols are verified records in our database as of February 2021. Closed circles are records of the brood from Stannard (1975); open circles represent absences of the brood. The shaded area represents Stannard’s estimation of the brood boundary. This map may not be reproduced without written permission.
Cooley, J. R., G. Kritsky, J. D. Zyla, M. J. Edwards, C. Simon, D. C. Marshall, K. B. R. Hill, and R. Krauss. 2009. The distribution of periodical cicada Brood X. The American Entomologist 55:106-112.
Kritsky, G. 1987. An historical analysis of periodical cicadas in Indiana (Homoptera: Cicadidae). Proceedings of the Indiana Academy of Sciences 97:295-322.
Kritsky, G. 1988. The 1987 emergence of the Periodical Cicada (Homoptera: Cicadidae: Magicicada spp.: Brood X) in Ohio. Ohio Journal Of Science 88:168-170.
Kritsky, G., J. Webb, M. Folsom, and M. Pfeister. 2005. Observations on periodical cicadas (Brood X) in Indiana and Ohio in 2004 (Hemiptera: Cicadidae: Magicicada spp.). Proceedings of the Indiana Academy of Sciences 114:65-69.
Lloyd, M., and J. A. White. 1976. Sympatry of periodical cicada broods and the hypothetical four-year acceleration. Evolution 30:786-801.
Marlatt, C. L. 1923. The Periodical Cicada. United States Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Entomology Bulletin 71:1-183.
Marshall, D. C., J. R. Cooley, R. D. Alexander, and T. E. Moore. 1996. New records of Michigan Cicadidae (Homoptera), with notes on the use of songs to monitor range changes. Great Lakes Entomologist 29:165-169.
Marshall, D. C. 2001. Periodical cicada (Homoptera: Cicadidae) life-cycle variations, the historical emergence record, and the geographic stability of brood distributions. Annals Of The Entomological Society Of America 94:386-399.
Moore, T. E. 2016. 17-Year cicadas in Michigan. Newsletter of the Michigan Entomological Society 61:32-34.
Simon, C., and M. Lloyd. 1982. Disjunct synchronic population of 17-year periodical cicadas: Relicts or evidence of polyphyly? Journal of the New York Entomological Society 90:275-301.
Simon, C. 1988. Evolution of 13- and 17-year periodical cicadas. Bulletin of the Entomological Society of America 34:163-176.
Stannard, L. J. 1975. The distribution of periodical cicadas in Illinois. ll. Nat. Hist. Surv. Biol. Notes 91:3-12.